INFO about the sub factors of the Protection Degrees
Water is the most common extinguishing means. Factor W defines the minimum standard (including town mains) required for the water supply and considers the type of water storage, the hydrant network, the available flow and pressure.
Water storage type
1. Water storage for general use, automatically filled  0
2. Water storage for general use, manually filled 4
3. No water storage available 10
Unchanged 0
Required Quantity of Water for Fire Extinguishment 0
The required quantity in m³ is equal to the total fire load in MJ/m² divided by 4. A smaller quantity will can reduce the efficiency of fire fighting operations.
0% 4
70% 3
80% 2
90% 1
100% 0
Distribution network
An adequate distribution piping system is required, its size depending on the total water capacity required. The distribution system shall be capable of supplying the  required quantity of fire extinguishment water to the fire scene in 2 hours without considerable pressure losses
The following table  gives the flow capacity of piping systems, based on a maximum water velocity of 2 m/sec, which guarantees low friction losses over larger distances. Network (looped) systems are adequate for twice these flows.
 None or < DIA 80 0
DIA 80 (3") 34,3
DIA 100 (4") 59,2
DIA 150 (6") 134,3
DIA 200 (8") 232,3
DIA 250 (10") 366,8
DIA 300 (12") 526,1
DIA 350 (14") 676,9
Unchanged 676,9
NA Distribution network supply capacity 
Normal protection means the chain: discovery - alarm - manual intervention 
Discovery and warning
A correct normal chain of warning  consist of  means of discovery, a guaranteed warning system to the fire service and an audible signal to the occupants to evacuate the building if required.
“means of discovery”  of a fire : e.g. continuous human presence in the building and/or a watchman service.
A “warning system” to signal the existence of a fire to the fire service: this can be a telephone network with a “fire call” number, or a manual push button system linked to the guard post who will call the fire service, or linked to an automatic call system for the fire service, or any other organised way to contact the fire service.
Sometimes the warning remains local, e.g. when the guard has no instructions or means to call the fire service. This will be penalised.
There must be an audible alarm signal to the occupants  to evacuate the compartment. In noisy environments a visual signal may also be required.
First intervention means.
The usual means for a first intervention are hand extinguishers, hose reels and inside hose stations. The type and number of the equipment must be adapted to the risk. Each country has its own rules.
Local standards should be used to define the number and type of hand held and mobile extinguishers. Hose reels and hose stations should be located in such a way that any part of the building can be reached by at least one hose jet. Hose reels are adequate for buildings with a low fire load and untrained users Hose stations are preferred where the fire load is high and where the people are trained.
Portable and Mobile extinguishers
1. Extinguishers adequate (type and quantity) 0
2. Extinguishers absent or of inadequate numbers or types 2
Unchanged 0
Hose reels and/or hose stations
1. Adequate number and location 0
2. Inadequate numbers or location 2
3. None 4
Unchanged 0
Fire brigade arrival time
The time between the discovery of the fire and the first intervention of the fire brigade is the period where the fire can develop while those in the building fight the fire.
1. First fire brigade arrival in less than 10 min 0
2. Arrival after 10 to 15 min 2
3. Arrival after 15 to 30 min 5
4. More than 30 minutes delay 10
Unchanged 2
Occupants' training
The training in the use of the manual means received by the occupants, is of great importance during that first period.
1. All occupants know how to use extinguishers, hose stations 0
2. Only a limited number of persons trained 2
3. No extinguisher training given 4
Unchanged 2
Under special protection the following are considered: automatic fire detection, improved water supplies, automatic fire protection systems, well equipped fire brigades. 
Automatic detection 
Automatic detection systems speed up the discovery of a fire and the fire brigade intervention. They can only be considered if there is a guaranteed connection to the fire brigade, which will immediately react to the signal.
Sprinkler systems connected to a fire alarm by flow switches can be considered as slow thermal detection systems. Smoke and flame detectors will be considered as fast detectors. Electronic supervision of the system and individual identification of a small fire zone (e.g. per detector) will give extra bonuses.
  None 0
1. Automatic detection by sprinklers + flow or pressure switch 4
2. by thermal (heat) detectors  5
3. by smoke or flame detectors  8
4. by smoke alarm units 2
Unchanged 0
Improved water supplies
The water supplies are of prime importance for fire fighting. Rivers, lakes and any other water storage that can guarantee 4 or more times the quantity of water needed are considered as inexhaustible.
The water has to be conveyed to the fire scene by a flow/pressure source with a reliable  energy source : a water tower, pump, elevated reservoir.. 
  Single flow/pressure source 0
 Highly reliable : One water storage with a double flow/pressure source[1] 5
Duplicated highly reliable: two storages, each with a flow/pressure source 12
Unchanged 0
Automatic protection for the compartment.
Consider at this point only automatic protection systems that cover the entire compartment. Partial systems for critical items are taken into account with factor Y.
  None 0
1. Sprinklers with one (public) water supply 11
2. Sprinklers with one independent water supply 14
3. Sprinklers with two independent water supplies 20
Unchanged 0
 WITH compartment protection by foam, powder, CO2, or inert gas 11
No other automatic extinguishing system 0
Unchanged 0
Unchanged 0
Responding fire station
1. Full time station 24 h/24  7 days/7 8
2. Professional crewed station ( day time crewed, night time retained ) 6
3. Retained station (part time professionals)  4
4. Volunteer crewed station 2
Unchanged 4
Industrial private fire brigade
  None 0
1. Part time industrial fire brigade (working hours) 6
2. Full time industrial fire brigade 24 h/24  7 days/7 14
Unchanged 0
The fire resistance factor F is defined by the fire resistance of the building elements, but with a correction for the value of the special protection S. Such correction is necessary as the presence of active fire protection systems reduces somewhat the benefit of passive protection. 
The average fire resistance is calculated with the fire resistance in minutes of the structure, the outside walls, the roof or ceiling, and the inner walls.
In most countries, the fire rating of construction elements will be expressed in minutes as defined by tests based on the ISO R 834 time/temperature curve. 
For structural building elements the main criterion is stability, although other requirements such as thermal insulation, smoke- and flame tightness and other features are also in use for certification. 
FRAME considers stability only for load bearing elements such as columns, beams, floors and roofs.
For partitions (sub compartmentation) flame tightness and insulation are required.
The following limitations also apply
1. To avoid unrealistic high values, do not use fire ratings higher than 120 minutes.
2. Do not use higher values for outside walls, roof or ceiling and inner walls than for the structure.
3. For mixed construction elements, use the rating of the weakest part.
4. Windows in outside walls can be neglected if they cover less than 5 % of the wall area.
5. The rating of roofs and ceilings is mainly defined by the underside.
6. For buildings with sprinklers designed to protect the structure or the roof, the duration of the water supply can be taken as the fire rating, but not for more than 60 minutes.
7. Consider only interior walls which subdivide the compartment in fire areas, none of them should be more than 25 % of the compartment, and no area should be larger than 1000 m²
The escape factor U takes into account all elements of the special protection that decrease the evacuation time or reduce the development of the fire. Additional compartmentation and protection of the exit paths are also evaluated.
Automatic detection systems speed up the discovery of a fire and the evacuation. The same values apply as for factor S, the special protection.
Compartmentation and exit path protection will reduce smoke and heat spread. Shortening the exit paths and good signage will allow the occupants to move faster into a safe area. 
Automatic fire detection systems
Compartment wide fire detection systems, which are already entered for the special protection factor S are automatically taken into account for the calculation of the escape factor U.
Partial fire detection in critical areas, e.g. in escape routes or increased hazard rooms can be considered here. A small bonus is given , when less than 300 persons have to be evacuated.
Sub compartments
  None 0
1. EI30 Sub compartments (fire areas of max.1000 m²)   2
2. EI60 Sub compartments (fire areas of max.1000 m²)   4
Unchanged 0
Type of stairways for evacuation
 No stairs used for exit 0
1. Open inside stairs 0
2. Single enclosed inside stair 1
3. More than one enclosed inside stair 2
4. At least one enclosed and smoke protected inside stair 3
5. More than one enclosed and smoke protected inside stair 4
6. Inside stair(s) and 1 outside stair 6
7. Inside stair(s) and more than 1 outside stair 8
8. Inside stair and outside toboggan or ladders for 1st / 2nd floor 2
Unchanged 0
Horizontal exits 
  No horizontal exits 0
1. Horizontal exit to adjacent compartment  min. 50% of required capacity 2
2. Horizontal exit(s) to adjacent compartment(s) 100% of required capacity 8
Unchanged 0
Sprinkler protection
  None 0
1. Sprinklers only in areas with increased fire risk 5
2. Whole compartment protected by sprinklers  10
Unchanged 0
The salvage factor Y evaluates those physical provisions that protect sensitive parts of the activity against the impact of a fire, and organisational measures to assure a swift restart of the activities if necessary on an other location.

e.g.  One water tank with two fire water pumps.